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  1. Making these customary items are one of my areas of expertise, the researching and replication of material culture is the basis for my quality of contemporary practice. I will try to outline the various components. Type of hook, technique and purpose these 2 hooks are different in their use and the species that they target, so the one on the left which is a Pa kahawai, has a relatively short barb with plenty of lashing because it is used to catch kahawai, a schooling fish which congregates even to this day is patches of over 3- hectares at times. It is a free fighting fish that chases around baitfish, and so the lure is dragged behind the waka, and the fish are pulled in and flicked on board, much in the same way i have seen tuna fishermen flick their catch on board. The Paua/haliotis iris shell is used much in the same way a spinner flashes and reflects light, giving the impression of a living swimming baitfish. This hook is used to catch by either hooking in the mouth by more commonly by hooking in the corner bone plates on the side of the kahawai or the inner gills. Shank and barb angles/faces In a Pa kahawai matau, the shell is cut first and then a wooden shank is crafted to fit it. One of my ancestors Te Rangi Hiiroa gives a step-by-step diagrammatic version of how they are made in his book, The Coming of the Maori, I am away from home at the moment but i an post this later when i get a chance. The angles are varied but are crucial to having enough material on each piece (shank-barb) to enable a decent purchase by the lashing material. A common but hard to master triangular lashing is used for the strongest effect. Our people were adept at using this lashing technique as everything, housing architecture, canoes etc all used the same technique. The second hook is a gorge hook, only used to honk the gills of fish like groper, john dory etc, any fish that had a large protruding mouth and swallowed or gobbled their prey whole, designed to hook into the gills and then draw the weight to a point low down on the shank to relieve pressure on the extended or most distant areas of the barb from the shank. gum as glue, has been recorded that gum was used but from experience is of little or no value for this application, once you have figured out the angles needed for the joined faces and have mastered the lashing technique, it is more a nuisance than anything. lashing and lashing materials lashing media is usually toi cordyline, or flax, which can be stripped down very quickly to produce a quick and strong line, we call this process mire, but its very similar to the 3 twine twist and then untwist technique that sailors learnt and used for their rope. Once again our people were used to doing this on large scales and our flax ropes were one of the reasons why Europe found it advantageous to trade and settle here through the industrial revolution of the 17-1800s. This rope was for everyday use almost indestructable for these applications. This type of lashing vs knotting is self tightening, every new lashing layer tightens on the those below it and eventually the last ones are pulled up under the others to produce a never ending lash (one that does not come undone). In general, we did not wear our working hooks around our necks, they were reserved for ritual versions of the matau, sometimes referencing the narrative of Maui fishing up the North island or of the significant role that matau and the food they caught played in Maori society. Sometimes there is a hidden throng of line that is lashed over, this line can run from part way up both the shank and barb, so that there are 2 points of stress to take the strain of the fighting fish, so one throng inside the curved inner apex between shank and barb and the other stress loaded lash at the bottom end of the matau., other times a rebate cut is made so that a tongue or protruding centre slice of the barb can be sandwiched between two outer flanges of the shank and then it give an added opportunity for a much stronger stress loaded join. These 2 previous options are not common though, hook making was a common and communal activity for those that lived adjacent to the sea, they weren't meant to last forever, they were working tools to catch everyday fish that were plentiful in those times. I hope this helped Rangi
  2. the top right tool in image one is the awl, the rest can be used as drills, scraper/tools for netsuke, bamboo or otherwise. They lead me to erring on the side or scrapers rather than drills because you can see the concave hollow cut into the flat non-cutting faces. Those concave hollows should normally go from the edge (or as close as you can get it) to the opposite faced edge, this means that its easier to sharpen as you are only sharpening the cutting edge instead of the whole face, and it also reduces the opportunity to convex those 3 flat faces on each tool. To cut these concave grindings in the flat face would have little effect if primarily used as drills. The top awl also allows for you to drill a curved hole instead of a straight drill, with a wide edge like that and a narrow shank it is perfect for getting this effect if desired.
  3. i use the term rebate for those relief areas that are dropped down lower. R
  4. Hi Michiel, the Manaia is the name for the seahorse, is actually a side profile of a seahorse, thats why you only ever see a manaia as a side on design. they dont really have any distinctive qualities when viewed front on, the reason why the manaia has the design features that make it distinct from other design elements in Maori carving is simply because of what a real seahorse looks like, a long beak like protrusion for a mouth, bony type structure, simple elements etc... just thought that i would post for background info. Rangi (hekerangi)
  5. Rangi

    New Member

    Haha, you guys are funny, I have posted some images in the new works section of this forum, I'll post more when i get the time, I have just got back from overseas and I have to get stuff sorted again, thank you all.. XR
  6. I have been carving since attending carving school at the age of seventeen, I only get time to do bone (etc) work when i can, and i enjoy doing it, I have lectured for a good part of my life in the visual arts and this small scale work is probably about 10-15% of the overall art work that I get involved with. I have a masters in the Visual arts as well through Massey Uni. I enjoy large monumental scale as well as small scale, and at present i fit these types of works in between my other commitments, it may look like I do a lot of work even though I know that my work production is prolific, i tend not to think so, i just feel like that i have so many ideas to get out of my head so i just whack as much out as i can when i can. regardless of that i always have tried to focus my students on design- problem solving, design, etc etc, technique, etc, always trying to master each part of the process.
  7. Rangi

    New Member

    ok yes sorry, i dropped my first image to se how big that was going to be, i have to do some figuring out to drop the size. R
  8. Rangi

    New Member

    Hi I am new to this group, I carve a little, when i get the time, just thought i'd say Hi Rangi Kipa
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